Niacinamide (Nicotinamide) is a form of vitamin B3 found in foods like eggs,牛奶，beans,大多数绿色蔬菜，还有肉。When you consume more niacin than your body needs,多余的部分转化为烟酰胺。
Niacinamide is found in many vitamin supplements either alone or in combination with other vitamins,and in many topical creams.烟酰胺可以在柜台上买到，它也被列在世界卫生组织的基本药物示范清单上（作为烟酰胺）。
Pellagra is a condition caused by the deficiency of niacin.烟酰胺补充剂是治疗这种疾病的一种既定方式。尽管烟酸也可以用来治疗糙皮病，烟酰胺通常被认为是更好的替代品，因为它不会导致皮肤冲洗副作用that niacin could produce.
Scientific evidence supports its use for
- 痤疮：Many studies have shown that niacinamide has anti-inflammatory properties that can help with acne.一medical article分析过去使用烟酰胺治疗痤疮的试验结果表明，使用烟酰胺作为局部治疗或口服补充剂可显著减少痤疮。Since there are no major side effects,many dermatologists recommend including niacinamide in acne treatments.
- 癌症：一发表在《新英格兰医学杂志》上的研究表明烟酰胺能有效降低患皮肤癌的风险。Participants at high risk of developing skin cancer who took niacinamide over one year reduced their risk of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma by 23 percent.研究还表明烟酰胺能降低患光化性角化病的风险。also known as pre-skin cancer.
- Diabetes:Somestudies have suggested烟酰胺能有效预防和治疗糖尿病前期和早期的胰岛素依赖性糖尿病（1型糖尿病）。
- 骨关节炎：According to几个 研究，taking niacinamide supplements may be effective at treating osteoarthritis by improving joint flexibility and reducing inflammation.可能有必要在服用补充剂的同时限制消炎药的使用。
- Hyperpigmentation and melasma:Niacinamide has been found to decrease pigmentation and is considered a possible option处理色素沉着和黄褐斑.也有早期临床试验表明烟酰胺may be effective for treating photoaging.
- Hyperphosphatemia:Hyperphosphatemia means there is a high level of phosphorus (phosphate) in the blood,是慢性肾病最常见的并发症之一。一些研究表明，烟酰胺与其他磷酸盐结合使用，可以帮助治疗高磷血症和肾病。This can安全降低the amount of phosphate in the bloodstream.
Contrary to popular belief,there is no scientific evidence to prove that niacinamide supplements can be used to lower cholesterol levels.However,烟酸，维生素B3的另一种形式是已经证明帮助降低高胆固醇水平。
Possible Side Effects
Niacinamide is generally safe for consumption and for topical use.Minor side effects of taking niacinamide supplements are diarrhea,头晕，痒，flatulence,烧心，and mild headaches.烟酰胺霜的副作用是发红，燃烧，and mild itching.
Speak with your doctor before taking niacinamide if you:
- Are pregnant or breastfeeding
- Have gallbladder disease
It is best to consult a doctor before taking niacinamide supplements prior to undergoing surgeries or taking any anticoagulant medication because niacinamide reduces your blood clotting.
Dosage and Preparation
- 对于骨关节炎，3 grams of niacinamide is to be taken daily for 12 weeks.The daily dose is to be divided into small doses throughout the day.
- For hyperphosphatemia,每天服用500毫克到1.5克烟酰胺，持续8到12周。和骨关节炎一样，this daily dose should be divided into small doses throughout the day.
- 对pellagra来说，每天服用300 g至500 g烟酰胺，分为小剂量。
- For acne,supplements that contain 750 mg of niacinamide combined with 25 mg of zinc,1.5毫克铜，每天服用500微克叶酸一到两次。
What to Look For
购买烟酰胺补充剂时，make sure to look for the word"烟酰胺on the label of the bottle or packaging.Many products tout the benefits of niacinamide but contain niacin or other forms of vitamin B3.
Niacinamide supplements are generally safe to take and can possibly help with various medical conditions.However,before taking any supplements containing niacinamide,最好和你的医生谈谈。这将确保你知道正确的剂量，以帮助你的健康需要和目标。