What Is Thyroid Disease?

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Your thyroid gland can be affected by a number of specific diseases. Thyroid conditions such as hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism typically result from underlying thyroid disease. It's estimated that about 20 million people in the United States have thyroid disease, making it one of the most common conditions.

妇女占多数甲状腺患者。不幸的是,谁有甲状腺问题,但人们还没有确诊弥补大多数甲状腺患者。

让我们来探讨关于甲状腺疾病的各个重要方面的关键信息。

甲状腺疾病的类型
Verywell / Emily Roberts

解剖学

你的甲状腺是位于脖子,下面和后面的小蝴蝶形腺体你的喉结,由四个独立的叶起来。一个健康的甲状腺一般重约一盎司。甲状腺的功能是产生甲状腺激素,这是所有你的身体的功能是必不可少的。

你的甲状腺是可以吸收碘身体的主要器官。甲状腺碘需要从你的饮食,并把它转换成甲状腺激素。它结合了氨基酸酪氨酸和碘,使甲状腺激素。

由甲状腺产生的两个关键激素是thyroxine-known为T4和三碘甲状腺氨酸,被称为T3,其主要目的是规范你的细胞,器官,组织和腺体如何使用氧气和能量。

在你的身体一切都依赖于甲状腺激素,包括消化,你的头发和指甲,增长你的sex drive和你的器官和腺体的功能。你的大脑,心脏和代谢特别依赖于甲状腺激素的右水平正常运行和顺利。

The thyroid operates in a feedback loop with your pituitary gland. The pituitary detects the levels of thyroid hormone circulating in your bloodstream and releases—or slows the release of—a hormone called Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH). When TSH is released, its job is to stimulate the thyroid to produce more hormone. When TSH levels drop, the message to the thyroid is to slow down production of thyroid hormone.

甲状腺疾病的类型

桥本氏病

桥本是一种自身免疫性疾病,这意味着你的免疫系统攻击不当你自己的甲状腺。该武器是什么?甲状腺抗体攻击,你的身体产生,包括甲状腺过氧化物酶抗体(TPO)和甲状腺球蛋白抗体测定(TGAb)。

桥本氏病通常会导致炎症和你的甲状腺逐渐破坏腺随着时间的推移。

大多数人桥本氏结了甲状腺功能减退,甲状腺激素不足的状况。

桥本氏可以,但是,因时间或过度活跃的阶段,被称为甲状腺功能亢进症。它还配备了甲状腺结节,甲状腺肿大的风险增加(扩大的甲状腺)和甲状腺癌的风险略有增加。

Graves'病

这种疾病是一种自身免疫性疾病,其中免疫系统不适当地产生抗体,被称为甲状腺刺激性抗体(TSI)。这些抗体过度刺激你的甲状腺,并导致其过量的甲状腺激素。

在某些情况下,TPO和TGAB抗体也可升高。在过量的甲状腺激素(甲状腺功能亢进)或甲状腺毒症的甲状腺结果的过度刺激。Graves'病常伴有甲状腺肿大和在某些情况下,甲状腺结节。

甲状腺Cancer

这是指癌症,在甲状腺发展。甲状腺cancer最常在甲状腺结节(流体填充或固体块状物)中发现。根据癌症的阶段,它可能蔓延到周围的组织。

Stages of thyroid cancer.

There are four types of thyroid cancer:

  1. Papillary or mixed papillary-follicular thyroid cancer which makes up about 80 percent of all thyroid cancers.
  2. 滤泡甲状腺癌它构成了箱子约14%(嗜酸细胞癌是甲状腺滤泡状癌和类似处理的变体)。
  3. 甲状腺髓样癌,这使得约占甲状腺癌的3%。
  4. 甲状腺未分化癌,这使得约占案件两成。

大部分甲状腺癌的被认为可以治疗的,非常生存能力。

甲状腺炎

This is a category of thyroid diseases that involves inflammation of your thyroid gland. Thyroiditis can be caused by antibody attacks on your gland, viruses, and bacteria. The types of thyroiditis include:

  • 桥本氏病
  • 亚急性甲状腺炎肉芽肿
  • Postpartum thyroiditis
  • 亚急性淋巴细胞性甲状腺炎
  • 药物性甲状腺炎

治疗取决于甲状腺炎的类型和从监视和非甾体类抗炎药物,以抗生素和甲状腺激素替代药物的范围内。

毒性多结节性甲状腺肿

这是一种疾病,甲状腺发展multiple nodules and enlarges (goiter). Frequently, the nodules are "functional," meaning that apart from the thyroid gland's hormone production, the nodules themselves also produce and release thyroid hormone. Toxic multinodular goiter frequently causes hyperthyroidism.

Resulting Thyroid Conditions

Hypothyroidism

最常见的甲状腺条件甲状腺功能减退症, which refers to a condition where you do not have enough thyroid hormone. It has a number of causes:

  • 桥本氏甲状腺炎,一个导致甲状腺的损害或破坏的自身免疫病症。
  • 手术后的甲状腺功能减退症,毕竟还是甲状腺的一部分已被手术切除。
  • 放射性碘治疗(RAI)用于甲状腺癌,格雷夫斯病,后和在甲状腺机能减退和结节的某些情况下后消融甲状腺机能减退-结果。
  • 先天性甲状腺功能低下-when a baby is born without a thyroid gland or with a malformed gland that is not capable of producing enough thyroid hormone.
  • Iodine-deficiency hypothyroidism—due to a deficiency of iodine in the diet.
  • 毒品和补充诱发甲状腺功能减退症,处方药和补品that have the ability to cause hypothyroidism.
  • Goitrogen引起的甲状腺功能减退症- 非常的原料goitrogens-食物,在他们的化学物质,减缓甲状腺高消费。
  • Secondary/central hypothyroidism—due to a defect in the functioning/communications of the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus.
  • 外伤性甲状腺功能减退症,严重创伤,颈部,如鞭打或打破了脖子,已与甲状腺功能减退症的发作。
  • Hypothyroidism of unknown origin/idiopathic hypothyroidism—there are cases where the thyroid becomes underactive and no other underlying causes or diseases have been identified.

Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism是指其中甲状腺被过量生产甲状腺激素的条件。它也有很多原因:

  • Autoimmune Graves' disease—the most common cause of hyperthyroidism.
  • Autoimmune Hashimoto's disease—sometimes causes periods of temporary hyperthyroidism.
  • Iodine-excess hyperthyroidism—results from overexposure or overconsumption of iodine.
  • 毒品和几个处方药以及一些过度的非处方补充剂补充源性甲亢-结果。
  • Toxic multinodular disease—a condition that frequently causes overproduction of thyroid hormone.
  • 甲状腺炎-certain forms can cause periods of hyperthyroidism.
  • 垂体源性甲亢-其中甲状腺可以由脑垂体变得过度刺激腺和产生甲状腺激素的过量。
  • 甲状腺结节,在某些情况下,他们可以触发过度活跃周围甲状腺,引起甲亢。他们还可以,对自己,产生甲状腺激素。

这指的是甲状腺的尺寸放大的状态。会导致自身免疫桥本和格雷夫斯氏病,碘过量或不足,和结节性甲状腺疾病。

甲状腺疾病Symptoms

甲状腺疾病的症状往往反映腺体的underactivity(甲状腺功能减退),活动过度(甲状腺功能亢进症),自身免疫性活化和/或炎症/放大/压痛在颈部区域(甲状腺炎,结节,癌症)。

Common symptoms of hypothyroidism包括:

  • Fatigue
  • Weight gain
  • Inability to lose weight with diet and exercise
  • Constipation
  • 不孕不育
  • 感觉冷
  • Hair loss (including the outer edge of the eyebrows)
  • 脑雾
  • 肌肉和关节痛/痛

Common symptoms of hyperthyroidism包括:

  • 焦虑
  • Insomnia
  • 恐慌的感觉
  • 震颤
  • 夸张的反射
  • 高架心脏率
  • Diarrhea or loose stools
  • 感觉过热
  • 不明原因的消瘦

Symptoms in the neck and thyroid area that can suggest a thyroid problem include:

  • 颈部不适
  • 可见甲状腺肿大或块状
  • 不适与领带,围巾,毛衣,或项链
  • 嘶哑
  • Sore throat
  • Soreness in neck
  • 吞咽困难

In some cases, thyroid diseases and conditions can have no symptoms at all, such as thyroid cancer or certain types of thyroiditis.

原因

The key风险因素for thyroid disease include:

  • 碘缺乏或过多
  • Exposure to radioactivity or radioactive fallout
  • 大豆和goitrogenic食品过度
  • 手术或外伤至颈部区域
  • Pregnancy or recent childbirth
  • Female gender
  • 自身免疫性疾病的个人史或家族史
  • Cigarette smoking

诊断

的甲状腺病症诊断涉及到几个关键步骤:

  • 临床检查
  • 血液测试:Typically,blood tests包括促甲状腺激素(TSH)测试,游离甲状腺素(游离T4)和游离T3(游离T3)抗体检测诊断桥本氏和Graves'病和测试反向T3水平。
  • Imaging tests:各种各样影像学检查are done to further evaluate the size, shape, and function of the thyroid gland. These tests also look at nodules or lumps and evaluate whether or not they are suspicious for thyroid cancer and require further evaluation. These tests include the radioactive iodine uptake (RAI-U), CT scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound.
  • 细针穿刺活检:细针穿刺(FNA) biopsy is done when thyroid nodules are considered suspicious and need to be tested for possible thyroid cancer.

Treatment

Hypothyroidism

这种情况与治疗甲状腺激素替代药物。这些都是处方药替换身体缺失的甲状腺激素。

  • The most commonly prescribed thyroid hormone replacement drug is known generically as levothyroxine, a synthetic form of the thyroid hormone thyroxine.
  • 也有T3激素,称为碘塞罗宁,即有时加入到左甲状腺素为T4 / T3组合治疗的合成形式。
  • Also, there is a hormone replacement drug called natural desiccated thyroid, sometimes abbreviated NDT or called "thyroid extract." While it has been available for more than a century and is still in use today, NDT is considered controversial by the mainstream medical community.

Graves'病甲状腺功能亢进症

有迹象表明,Graves'病和慢性甲亢治疗有三个主要途径:

  1. 抗甲状腺药物治疗-抗甲状腺药物,包括甲巯咪唑(他巴唑),卡比马唑(新mercazole)和丙基硫氧嘧啶(PTU),可以减缓甲状腺生产的甲状腺激素。
  2. 放射性碘治疗(RAI)-Given以单次剂量,或者以胶囊或饮料,它进入甲状腺,甲状腺辐射细胞和损伤和杀死他们。这缩小了甲状腺,减缓它的功能,和挫折甲亢。
  3. 甲状腺手术/甲状腺切除术- 在某些情况下,手术is performed as a treatment for Graves' disease and hyperthyroidism, especially for people who cannot tolerate antithyroid drugs or are pregnant and RAI is not an option.

甲状腺Cancer

For more aggressive types of thyroid cancer, surgery may be followed by RAI treatment to ensure that all thyroid cells are destroyed, a process known as remnant ablation.

Treatment for thyroid cancer almost always involvessurgical removal of the thyroid gland

在手术切除甲状腺,患者在功能上是甲减,需要终生甲状腺激素替代治疗。较不常见,其他处理,包括外线束放射,化学治疗,射频消融,和经皮乙醇注射-被使用。

Autoimmunity and Hashimoto's

Integrative and functional medicine practitioners sometimes treat autoimmune thyroid disease, especially Hashimoto's, with the drug low dose naltrexone (LDN) which may help lower antibodies.

其他treatment approaches include:

  • 补充硒降低抗体
  • 寻址可以治疗甲状腺相关的复杂肾上腺失衡
  • Dietary changes to reduce inflammation
  • Eliminating gluten from the diet due to a connection between gluten and autoimmunity
  • 压力减少和管理

正与你的医疗团队

出人意料的是,在你的甲状腺诊断,治疗和缓解症状的一个挑战,实际上可能是你的保健医生。合适的医生可以使所有的差异。为此,它知道如何认真很重要选择正确的医生为你的甲状腺保健和学会如何有效地与他们沟通。

甲状腺疾病医生讨论指南

Get our printable guide for your next doctor's appointment to help you ask the right questions.

Doctor Discussion Guide Woman

One question you may be wondering is您是否不需要的内分泌学家。答案取决于你的状态和你的目标。如果你确实需要的内分泌学家,你会想要确保你找到合适的内分泌经验和资格。另外,你要确保你的医生提供最好的照顾for your thyroid condition.

生活好

甲状腺疾病可以影响生活的许多领域,您可能需要应对的具体挑战。

生育和怀孕

生殖过程是一个特别重要的时候要注意甲状腺健康和功​​能。Healthy thyroid功能需要生育,一successful pregnancy, and产后健康

当存在未确诊的,或难治疗甲状腺病症,它可以具有多种效果,包括:

  • 生育能力受损
  • Failed assisted reproduction treatments (such as in vitro fertilization)
  • Increased risk of early miscarriage
  • Increased risk of preeclampsia and prematurity
  • 增加死产风险
  • Increased risk of postpartum depression
  • 增加的母乳喂养问题的风险

A good starting point is exploring the official guidelines for managingthyroid disease during and after pregnancy

节食,减肥,和健身

其中的一些人发现他们有甲状腺问题是体重增加或完全不能减肥的起效快的方式。对于诊断和治疗甲状腺患者中,最常见的挑战之一是困难减肥或增重,尽管有一个健康的饮食和锻炼计划。

甲状腺功能和代谢之间的联系是显而易见的。然而,主流医学仍然不重视甲状腺功能减退症和体重增加的关​​系困难的人甲状腺功能减退有减肥和甲状腺问题对肠道健康,消化,血糖和代谢健康的影响。

Most thyroid patients with weight struggles find it helpful to understand the factors that affect weight loss with hypothyroidism. This includes the roles ofreverse T3 and leptin,影响甲状腺病人的能力,减肥的两个关键激素。

一个字从Verywell必威下载

你被诊断出患有一种慢性健康问题任何时候,它可以是混乱和可怕。在健康成功的最佳机会,包括卷入,并为自己的甲状腺保健的倡导者。而成为一名成功的甲状腺病人的关键因素之一是保持通知。这意味着阅读,下面的最新研究成果,并与其他人谁可以分享他们成功的咨询连接。

了解不亚于您可以和确保您管理应力meditation,例如,可以帮助您一起医疗甲状腺治疗。而且,即使你觉得你的战斗与医生,护理一场艰苦的战斗,和衰弱的症状,don't give up!数以百万计的人living well with thyroid conditions,你也可以是那些成功的故事之一。

如何阅读thyroid disease causes dry mouth

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