心力衰竭概述

条款目录

心力衰竭是指心脏不能进行必要的工作来满足身体的需要的情况。最常见的症状包括呼吸急促和疲劳。虽然可以通过药物进行管理,in some cases,surgery or other procedures,heart failure is a serious condition that is associated with the risk of death within five to 10 years. Heart failure is the end-stage result of longstanding heart conditions,如冠状动脉疾病和心律失常。

There are two general clinical syndromes associated with heart failure:

Congestive heart failure:这通常是人们谈论心力衰竭时所指的。有了这种类型,心脏功能弱会导致肺部和全身的血液流动堵塞。前者导致呼吸急促,后者会导致腿部肿胀,甚至手部肿胀。

低输出量心力衰竭:偶尔地,心力衰竭患者可能很少或没有肺部充血。在这种情况下,主要的问题往往是心脏肌肉变得非常虚弱,心脏无法再向身体器官输送足够的血液。

心力衰竭主要是低输出量心力衰竭的人更容易患低血压,头昏眼花,晕厥。低输出量心衰通常是非常严重的心衰的征兆,并且与非常差的预后有关。

症状

早期心力衰竭可导致range of symptoms.If you develop heart failure,即使在早期,很有可能你已经诊断出或未诊断出心脏病很多年了。心力衰竭通常会影响成人,但可能会发生在儿童身上,因为先天性(从出生起)心脏病。betway手机平台

The most common symptoms of betway手机平台heart disease include:

  • 呼吸困难: Shortness of breath,尤其是体力劳动
  • 水肿肿胀,通常在腿和脚踝。水肿可能是点状水肿,其特征是在施加压力后,肿胀区域出现凹陷。usually lasting for a few minutes.
  • 虚弱和疲劳,尤其是劳累
  • 尿频
  • 呼吸急促导致睡眠困难
  • 低血压
  • 头昏眼花

对于大多数心力衰竭的人来说,呼吸困难和水肿是最突出的症状。Shortness of breath can characteristically occur with certain positions,你可能会体验到这些:

Symptoms are more severe and persistent in advanced heart failure,也称为ESRD(终末期心力衰竭)。In addition,when heart failure progresses to end-stage heart failure,预计会出现其他症状,including:

  • 休息时呼吸急促
  • 虚弱和疲劳,即使不费吹灰之力
  • 你的心跳加速的感觉
  • Wheezing and coughing
  • 食欲下降或食欲不振
  • 晕厥
  • 混乱

原因

有几种类型的心力衰竭都以心肌泵送不足为特征,which results in fluid accumulation.Generalized fluid accumulation causes the dyspnea and edema of heart failure.这种积液也会引起堵塞,在肺部和下肢最突出,causing shortness of breath and low energy level.

The most common心力衰竭的原因include:

扩张型心肌病:Dilated cardiomyopathy is the end result of a large variety of betway手机平台heart diseases,如必威体育平台瓣膜性心脏病。betway手机平台It occurs when the underlying cardiac disease eventually produces a significant weakening of the heart muscle itself.

肥厚性心肌病:肥厚性心肌病通常是一种遗传病,常在家族中遗传。其特征是心肌增厚,导致心室僵硬。

舒张功能障碍:Diastolic dysfunction is similar to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in that it is caused by a stiffening of the heart muscle,which leads to impaired filling of the heart.但不像肥厚性心肌病,舒张性心力衰竭通常不是伴随着心肌增厚,不被认为是遗传性疾病它往往发生在老年人身上,通常是女性和高血压患者。其特征是肺充血引起的呼吸急促相对突发。

还有许多其他医学问题也可能导致或导致心力衰竭,including heart attacks,high blood pressure,心脏瓣膜病,smoking,肥胖,diabetes,化疗,and stress.

Diagnosis

如果你有心力衰竭的症状,your doctor will use several methods to determine whether heart failure is the cause of your symptoms.心力衰竭诊断includes:

体格检查:通常,你的医生可以通过听你的肺来听到充血,通过听你的心脏来发现心力衰竭或心律失常的迹象。

胸部X光片:A chest X-ray may show that you have an enlarged heart or signs of lung congestion.

Echocardiogram:The dilation and weakening of the left ventricle are usually estimated by measuring the left ventricularejection fraction.The ejection fraction measures the percentage of blood held by the left ventricle that is ejected with each heartbeat.Typically,射血分数大于等于50%。With dilated cardiomyopathy,这个值降低了。

血液检验:Blood tests are not typically considered standard in the diagnosis of heart failure.B型钠尿肽(BNP),一种可以帮助医生判断是否发生心力衰竭的血液测试,在某些情况下可以考虑。

治疗

幸运的是,在treatment of heart failure.With aggressive therapy,症状和死亡风险都可以大大降低。Medications,以及一些程序,可以改善心衰患者的症状和提高生存率。

治疗心力衰竭最常用的药物包括:

  • ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors: ACE inhibitors block the formation of angiotensin II.这种药物可以降低血压,减少心力衰竭患者的钠潴留。
  • β受体阻滞剂:β受体阻滞剂阻断肾上腺素对心脏的作用以减少对衰竭心脏的过度压力。These medications are most commonly used for dilated cardiomyopathy.
  • 利尿剂:通常被称为“水丸”,这些药物通过作用于肾脏来刺激身体失水。This effect decreases fluid retention and edema.

Procedures may also be used for heart failure,但并非所有患有心力衰竭的人都能从中受益。Furthermore,有些心力衰竭患者的健康状况可能不足以忍受这些手术。

Depending on your heart function,你可以和医生讨论这些手术。

  • 起搏器:起搏器是一种刺激心脏跳动的装置。Normally,植入起搏器只是为了刺激心脏的一侧。在治疗心力衰竭时,然而,起搏器刺激心脏的左右两侧。这通常被称为CRT(心脏再同步治疗)。
  • Heart transplant: A heart transplant is the surgical replacement of your heart with a heart that can function well.This is not a simple procedure for a number of reasons.If you have heart failure,你的健康状况可能会使你难以忍受手术的强度。而且,如果你需要一个健康的捐赠者的心脏,移植器官不多。

应对

心力衰竭会限制你的活动,以及疲劳。应对心力衰竭requires an adjustment in mindset,以及实际考虑。

Lifestyle adjustments include making sure that you do not take part in activities that could worsen your condition,as well as taking on activities that can optimize your health.

Some important strategies include:

习惯:吸烟和饮酒都与心脏病有关,如果你已经有了吸烟和饮酒会使病情恶化,betway手机平台so it is beneficial to stop these activities if you have heart failure.

Diet/salt management:Maintaining a healthy diet is important in managing heart failure.获得足够的卡路里和营养以维持你的能量是很重要的。你可能还需要与营养师会面,以获得有关具体问题的建议,如体重维持,salt restriction,and fluid restriction. A low salt diet can help alleviate some of the fluid retentions that occur with betway手机平台heart disease.

重量管理:The weak heart that characterizes betway手机平台heart disease cannot easily tolerate the demands put on by the strain of extra weight.保持一个最佳的体重可以帮助减轻一些过度的工作,这些工作对于一个心脏衰竭的人来说是很难跟上的。

练习:体育活动可以训练你的心脏变得更强壮和更有效率。然而,如果你有心力衰竭,你应该和你的医生讨论锻炼,并遵循这方面的医学建议。

A Word From 必威下载Verywell

If you or your loved one has heart failure,你应该知道你并不孤单。This is a very common medical problem,但这是一个必须认真对待的医疗问题。

In addition to the symptoms that cause discomfort,比如呼吸急促,头晕,由于缺乏能量和疲劳,很难适应活动水平的降低。管理良好,你可以体验到症状的改善。

当你所爱的人心脏衰竭时,您可能需要选择适合您的能量水平以及您所爱的人的能量水平和活动耐力的修改活动。

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